Tuesday, June 4, 2019

Large Hadron Collider - greatest experimental physics arena:

In the last post, we shared the interesting photos of ALICE projects which received a good response from the readers. This time, we collected high-quality photos of LHC in the physics forum and it will ignite the readers to pursue their career in physics.

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Higgs Field:

The Higgs field is a conformal scalar field which takes a constant non-zero value everywhere. It is mediated by the Higgs boson which provides intrinsic mass to matter via the spontaneous breaking of the electroweak gauge symmetry (especially the weak vector W and Z bosons) and carries no color or electric charge arising due to local gauge symmetries in the vector potential. It has positive parity (behavior of the wave function ψ under spatial reflections) and zero spins. The Higgs boson is variant under its elementary scalars yet another reason it acquires mass by itself via self-coupling, just like axions do and has a very short mean lifetime, decaying into two Z bosons and 4 leptons. The Higgs mass depends logarithmically on the stop mass corrections and thus provides a wide range of possible inbound state masses, from the experimental 500 Gev ( with nonminimal field content) to around 10 Tev. Energies ranging between 1.3-1.5 Tev are due to be tested at the LHC in a short while. In the spontaneous breaking of the electroweak gauge symmetry, another interesting fact prevails that a mass term is not included for the gauge bosons. The reason for this being that the equations of motion would change if a mass term for the gauge bosons would have been added and a gauge transformation would have been performed. Another well-known reason for gauge bosons to be massless is that gauge invariance requires the polarisation states of photons especially to be transverse. For exhibiting such a property, unbroken gauge invariance requires the photons to be massless. The breaking of the electroweak gauge symmetry would induce rest masses in the weak gauge bosons but a smaller symmetry persists, which leaves the photons massless. The superpartner of the Higgs boson is a supersymmetric fermion, known as the Higgsino though such composite particles haven't been detected as of yet. Another fact to note here that is that exact broken gauge symmetry within the realm of supersymmetry would mean exact masses between the superpartners. Hence, it essentially remains unbroken in nature provided nature exhibits a space-inversion symmetry by which parity remains conserved. A new concept has sprung up to explain the matter-antimatter asymmetry in the early universe. It is said that the Higgs field possessed a much larger value in the early universe, by which matter received considerable mass while antimatter received it in small amounts (here I talk about the particles and their antiparticles). But as the universe aged, it gradually came down to stabilize to the value we see today. This phenomenon is known as the "Higgs field relaxation" and the yet undiscovered Majorana neutrino plays a crucial role in this aspect.

There are 2 types of masses: 
Gravitational Mass and Inertial Mass.

Inertial mass (m), it is the quantity which decides how much acceleration (a) particular amount of force(F) will produce if applied to a body. Giving rise to newtons very famous

Gravitational mass(m) is simply the ‘charge’ in the gravitational field very similar to electric charge. It determines the strength of the gravitational force between 2 particles:

Where Fg is the gravitational force, G is the gravitational constant, m1 and m2are the gravitational masses of the objects, while r is the distance between them.

Gravitational-mass and Inertial-mass are found to have the same value, to this date. The Standard Model and Higgs field: in the standard model of quantum field theory, each entity(electron, proton, neutron) is an excitation of its own field (electron field, proton field, etc.). Various properties such as “electric-charge”, arise due to interactions of particles with corresponding fields (eg. Electromagnetic field).
One such field is called Higgs field and its excitations are called Higgs-Bosons. This field gives mass to every other object in the Universe. More something interacts with this field more mass that object has. If it does not interact, the particle becomes mass-less(like a photon).

Let me explain it, with the help an example:
There is a party in the town and you happen to be invited to the party. If you are not a popular person, you can go there and wander without interacting with anyone in the crowd.
But a movie star came into the same party and he will get massive tiding and response from the crowd. You encounter no resistance going through the crowd. You have Zero-mass at this party. The movie star, on the other hand, has a very High-mass. In order to reach the other end of the party, he needs to interact with so many people.
In short, the crowd is the Higgs field, social interactions are what gives you mass.

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Saturday, June 1, 2019

Biography of greatest scientists:

Scientists are the unsung hero of the modern world which encompasses the improvement in science and technology. From mechanical device to modern computers, from the motion of bicycle to orbiting of the satellite, from a safety pin to life-saving medicine, all the revolutionary thoughts are achieved by scientists who never got the good time with their family or society. We manage to create the biography of the greatest scientists in the form of slideshow in a YouTube video:

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CERN: High-Energy Physics

CERN, European Organization for Nuclear Research, which operates the largest particle physics experiment in the world. CERN is the provider of needed infrastructure for a high-energy physics experiment.

 The discovery of neutral currents in the Gargamelle bubble chamber
 The discovery of W and Z bosons in the UA1 and UA2 experiments
 The determination of the number of light neutrino families at the Large Electron-Positron Collider (LEP) operating on the Z boson peak
 The first creation of antihydrogen atoms in the PS210 experiment
 The discovery of direct CP violation in the NA48 experiment
 The isolation of 38 atoms of antihydrogen
 Maintaining antihydrogen for over 15 minutes
 A boson with a mass around 125 GeV/c2 consistent with the long-sought Higgs boson

ALICE is one of seven detector experiments at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN. The other six are ATLAS, CMS, TOTEM, LHCb, LHCf, and MoEDAL. ALICE, one of the major experiments at CERN, creates a quark-gluon plasma, not seen in our universe since a millionth of a second after the great Big Bang. We got some of the coolest pictures shared by the researchers on the net. These pictures are surely blown the mind, because of the complex structure and grand appearance of the particle accelerators.

The below YouTube video was created by our team with these photos:

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Enhancing Embedded Device Security with MITRE EMB3D™

In today's interconnected world, the security of embedded devices has become crucial. Embedded devices, integral to various industries, ...